The word ” Galungan ” derives from the Old Javanese language , which means win or fight . Galungan also synonymous with Dungulan , which also means victory . Therefore, in Java , the eleventh wuku called Wuku Galungan , while in Bali eleventh wuku called Wuku Dungulan . Name is different , but the meaning is the same. As in Java in the details there as Legi pancawara while in Bali called Umanis , which means the same : sweet .
Somewhat difficult to ascertain how the origin of this Galungan . When actually celebrated Galungan first in Indonesia, particularly in Java and in other areas, especially in Bali . Drs . I Gusti Agung Gede Putra ( former Director General of the Department of Guidance Hindu and Buddhist Religious Affairs ) estimates , has long celebrated Galungan Hindus in Indonesia before the feast was celebrated on the popular island of Bali . This allegation is based on the Old Javanese language manuscripts named Song of Panji Amalat Rasmi . However, exactly when Galungan is celebrated outside Bali and whether the same name Galungan , still unanswered, for sure .
In Bali Galungan festivities were identical with penjor the roadside, road decorate natural nuance. In this modern era, especially as the purpose of tourism, the island of Bali often highlighted as a beautiful island at once religious. (Penjor is decorated bamboo such a way appropriate local Balinese traditions).
This ceremonial days come once in 210 days ( 6 months on Balinese calender ) in the Balinese calendar system. Galungan & Kuningan are two peak days from a series of ceremonial days which started 25 days before Galungan and finished 25 days after Kuningan (Galungan and Kuningan itself has a difference of 10 days, so it makes this series become 60 ceremonial days) started from:
Tumpek Wariga : This day starting the whole series of ceremonial days and come on Saniscara Kliwon Wuku Wariga (25 days before Galungan). This day is known as the balinese “Earth Day”, where people communicating with the nature, especially the plants. People pray to Bhatara Sangkara and give offering to the plants in hope for prosperity of the plants that will affect people itself. This day also known as Tumpek Uduh, Tumpek Bubuh or Tumpek Pengatag.
Sugihan jawa & Sugihan Bali : These days come consecutively on sixth and fifth days before Galungan. Both days are celebrated as the day to pray for the universe (macrocosmos) and ourself as the symbol of the small universe (microcosmos)
Penyekeban, Penyajaan, Penampahan : These days also come consecutively on third day (Penyekeban), second day (Penyajaan) and one day (Penampahan) before galungan. The Penyekeban day is when Sang Bhuta Galungan come to the world to disturb people to do “Adharma” (bad behavior like war or fight with other person). “Galung” (from the word Galungan) itself mean war in sanskrit language. visually symbolized by making fermented glutinous rice or casava. Penyajaan comes in the second day before Galungan and it is a day when Sang Bhuta Dungulan come to the world and disturb people to do even worse behavior like conquering other people. people must defense their self from the disturbances made by Sang Bhuta Dungulan. visually symbolized by making “jaje” (balinese traditional snack). One day before Galungan is Penampahan Galungan, this is the day where Sang Bhuta Amangkurat come to the world and disturbing people to do “Adharma”. from the three disturbances, Sang Bhuta Amangkurat is the most powerful one, and people must depend itself from the disturbances.. Also pray to Bhatara Siwa to conquer it all. Visually symbolized by “Nampah Celeng” (killing the pig). Pig is the symbol of laziness, so killing the pig also meaning to kill the laziness, meanwhile “nampa” from the word “Nampah” mean preparation to accept blessing from Sanghyang Dharma. Late in the afternoon people install the “penjor” (pole made from a high and curving bamboo stick) decorated with coconut leaves decorations. penjor is a symbol of thank you for all the gifts from Sang Hyang Widi in manifestation as Hyang Maha Meru, symbolized with all the fruits, “jaje”, tubers given by Him.
Galungan : The Independence Day for Hindus people especially in Bali.. This day is the day when Dharma (good things) win against Adharma (bad things). People go to Pura to pray to Sang Hyang Widhi for all His blessings.
Umanis Galungan : One day after Galungan is called Umanis Galungan.. in this day, people often go to relative’s house to meet their relatives.
Pemacekan Agung : Five days after Galungan, people give offering (caru) to Bhuta Kala so they will not disturb people during the time they waiting for Kuningan Day
Penampahan Kuningan : Nine days after Galungan, people are ready to welcome Kuningan day. They prepare the offerings for tomorrow morning ceremony and at night they pray to Sanghyang Tri Purusha (Siwa, Sada Siwa, Parama Siwa)
Kuningan Day : Early in the morning people have already come to Pura or Merajan to pray to Sang Hyang Widhi. This is because Sang Hyang Widi and all gods are coming from heaven just about half the day during Kuningan ceremony. Symbolically people make the “Nasi Kuning” offering as a symbol to tell to their youngsters to follow them to celebrate the Kuningan Day (Kuningan comes from word “uning” that has the meaning notification). People also make “Tamiang” to be put on “pelinggih” as a symbol of the shield against Adharma
Pegat Uwakan : The last day of Galungan and Kuningan ceremonial days. This day comes 25 days after Kuningan (or 35 days after Galungan Day). “Pegat” means separate, while “uwak” means careless, so the meaning of Pegat Uwakan is to remind people not to forget to perform Dharma in days after Galungan and Kuningan ceremonies.